Sign In Forgot Password
  • 		                                		                                    <a href="https://www.surfsideminyan.com/parsha-halacha.html"
		                                    	target="">
		                                		                                <span class="slider_title">
		                                    Weekly Parsha Halacha		                                </span>
		                                		                                </a>
		                                		                                
		                                		                            	                            	
		                            <span class="slider_description">Practical topics for your daily life</span>
		                            		                            		                            <a href="https://www.surfsideminyan.com/parsha-halacha.html" class="slider_link"
		                            	target="">
		                            	Learn More		                            </a>
  • 		                                		                                    <a href="https://www.surfsideminyan.com/learning"
		                                    	target="">
		                                		                                <span class="slider_title">
		                                    NEW PODCASTS: Listen & Learn		                                </span>
		                                		                                </a>
		                                		                                
		                                		                            	                            	
		                            <span class="slider_description">Daily Halacha, Likutei Torah & Mussar Series</span>
		                            		                            		                            <a href="https://www.surfsideminyan.com/learning" class="slider_link"
		                            	target="">
		                            	Learn More		                            </a>
  • 		                                		                                    <a href="https://www.surfsideminyan.com/laws-and-customs.html"
		                                    	target="">
		                                		                                <span class="slider_title">
		                                    Jewish Laws & Customs		                                </span>
		                                		                                </a>
		                                		                                
		                                		                            	                            	
		                            <span class="slider_description">Celebrating with meaning</span>
		                            		                            		                            <a href="https://www.surfsideminyan.com/laws-and-customs.html" class="slider_link"
		                            	target="">
		                            	Learn More		                            </a>
  • 		                                		                                    <a href="https://surfsideminyan.shulcloud.com/payment.php"
		                                    	target="">
		                                		                                <span class="slider_title">
		                                    Join our campaign		                                </span>
		                                		                                </a>
		                                		                                
		                                		                            	                            	
		                            <span class="slider_description">Yom Tov Family Fund</span>
		                            		                            		                            <a href="https://surfsideminyan.shulcloud.com/payment.php" class="slider_link"
		                            	target="">
		                            	Learn More		                            </a>

Laws and Customs of Tisha Be’Av 5783

 

Laws and Customs of Tisha Be’Av 5783

Sponsored Anonymously. Co-sponsored by Daniel Hallak in memory of his mother Rene bat Iosef. May her Neshama have an Aliyah.

Parsha Halacha is sponsored by a grant from Dr. Stephen Brenner and Dr. Morton Borg in loving memory of Stephen's father, Shmuel Tzvi ben Pinchas, and Bella's and Morton's parents, Avraham ben Yitzchak and Leah bas HaRav Sholom Zev HaCohen.


Click here for a print version of this article 

Click here for Tisha Be'Av Times


Tisha Be’Av

Wednesday night and Thursday, July 26 and 27/ 9 Menachem Av 

Tisha Be’Av is a day of fasting when we mourn over five tragedies that occurred to the Jewish people:[1]

1)In the year 1312 BCE, the spies returned from Israel with a bad report about the land of Israel. The Jews believed them, as a result of which it was decreed that the entire generation perish in the desert. According to our sages, during the next 38 years in the desert, the men who turned 60 (which was more than 15,000 each year) would die on the ninth of Av of that year.[2]

2) The first Beit Hamikdash (Holy Temple) was destroyed by the Babylonians in the year 423 BCE. 

3) The second Beit HaMikdash was destroyed by the Romans around the year 69.[3]

4) Turnus Rufus,[4] the governor of the Judean province after the destruction of the second Beit HaMikdash, had the Temple Mount[5] plowed under on that day.[6]

 

5) In the year 135 the rebellion of Beitar was suppressed, resulting in the death of millions of Jews. 

 

More recently:

a) The Jews were expelled from England on July 18, 1290 (9 Av 5050).

b) The Jews were expelled from France on July 22, 1306 (10 Av 5066).

c) The Jews were expelled from Spain on July 31, 1492 (7 Av 5252).

d) Germany declared war on Russia in the start of World War I on August 1, 1914 (9 Av 5674).

 

This article is a brief digest of the laws pertaining to this day: For more information please see Orach Chaim 552 – 559 and commentaries. 

 

 

Erev Tisha Be’Av

Wednesday afternoon, July 26/Menachem Av 8

  • One may not study Torah from noon on Erev Tisha Be’Av (Wednesday) until Tisha Be’Av is over (Thursday night). This is because Torah study gladdens the heart. If one studies in the hours before Tisha Be’Av, this gladness may carry over until Tisha Be’Av.[7] Some permit Torah study on Erev Tisha Be’Av.[8]
  • One may study the parts of the Torah which are sad and/or relate to the destruction of the Beit HaMikdash. Several examples:[9]
  • Megillat Eicha and the Midrash on Eicha
  • The sad parts of the Book of Yirmiyahu (Jeremiah) and the Book of Iyov (Job)
  • The last chapter of Tractate Mo’ed Kattan
  • The story of the second destruction as recorded in Gittin 55b – 58a, or of the first destruction as recorded in Sanhedrin 96b and 97
  • The Book of Josephus (Wars of the Jews)
  • The laws of mourning and of Tisha Be’Av may also be studied.

Tachnun (prayers of supplication) is not recited at Mincha since Tisha Be’Av is referred to as a mo’ed (holiday).[10]

Seudah HaMafseket[11]

The final meal before the fast must be very simple (see below). For this reason, many people have two meals in the afternoon of Erev Tisha Be’Av. During the first meal, they may eat whatever they wish.[12] An interruption is made, usually by going to daven (pray) Mincha (the afternoon service), and then the final meal may be eaten. 

The final meal before the fast is called the Seudah Hamafseket (lit., the meal that divides). It should include bread (some use bagels[13]) dipped in ashes[14] and cold, hard-boiled eggs. Sefardim eat bread and a lentil dish. (Some Sefardim have a dish which includes lentils and eggs.[15]

One may not have another cooked side dish. One may drink water and/or coffee or tea. Some are strict not to have a hot drink.[16]

It is customary to eat the Seudah Hamafseket while sitting on the floor. See footnote.[17] One should not eat it in a group, but rather each person should sit separately. If, for some reason, a group of three men did eat together, they should each recite Birkat HaMazon (Grace after Meals) separately and should not do a zimun (reciting Brikat HaMazon as a group).[18]

One need not remove his shoes during this meal. In addition, after this meal, before the fast begins, one may sit in a regular chair.[19]

One may eat a snack or have a drink after this meal before the fast begins as long as one did not intend to begin the fast when he finished the meal. If one plans to have a snack or drink, it is best to have that in mind before reciting the Grace after Meals.[20]

 

Forbidden Activities

The following activities are forbidden on Tisha Be’Av:

Torah Study

As mentioned above, one may not study Torah on Tisha Be’Av. except for certain topics (see above). Even when studying those topics, one may not delve deeply into them and develop new insights.

In addition:

  • One who will read from the Torah on Tisha Be’Av may review the Torah portion before the reading.
  • One should not think Torah thoughts. 
  • One may only render a Halachic ruling if it is necessary for that time.[21]
  • One should also not read secular articles or the news or do anything which will distract him from the mourning of the day.[22]
  • Some permit one to learn from works that inspire a person to Teshuvah . such as Mussar. In addition, Chassidic discourses that explain Megilat Eicha may be studied.[23]
  • A mourner (or one who has Yohrtzeit) who normally recites Mishnayot after the prayers and then says a Kadish Derabanan should say the Mishnayot of Ta’anit or Mo’ed Kattan which one may study on Tisha Be’Av. At Mincha on Thursday afternoon, one may say the regular Mishnayot.[24]
  • Some say that one may do regular Torah study that is done by a community on a daily basis such as Chok LeYisrael or Chitat (Chumash, Tehillim, and Tanya) after Mincha. This is the Chabad custom (i.e., to study Chitat),[25] but it doesn’t include one’s additional personal daily study regimen.[26]

 

Sitting[27]

  • From when the fast begins on Wednesday night until midday on Thursday, one may not sit on a regular chair. This applies to both men and women as well as to children who have reached the age of education in this matter. One may sit on the floor, a pillow, or a low stool.
  • One may stand if he wishes. Only if one wishes to sit, should he sit in the prescribed manner.
  • A pregnant woman or elderly person for whom it is difficult to sit on a low stool may sit on a regular chair.
  • One may sit as usual when traveling by car. 
  • When traveling by bus or train, one should stand if possible.[28]
  • One may not sit on a bed.
  • One who does hagbah (lifting the Sefer Torah) may sit while holding the Torah afterwards. Similarly, a sandek (one who holds the baby during a brit) may sit during the brit.
  • A nursing mother may sit as usual while nursing. 
  • When sitting on the floor or a low stool, one should make sure not to place one’s siddur or other holy book on the floor.

Sleeping in the Normal Fashion

  • When going to sleep at night, one should be somewhat uncomfortable. For example, if one usually sleeps with two pillows, he should use one instead. If he usually uses one, he should use none.[29]
  • Some have a custom to sleep on the floor with a stone as a pillow (placed under the mattress).
  • I heard that the Lubavitcher Rebbe would sleep with his mattress on the floor on TishaBe’Av.[30]

Eating and Drinking

  • From sunset on Wednesday until nightfall on Thursday, it is forbidden to eat or drink. 
  • One who is sick and confined to bed need not fast.[31] Some say that even a sick person should fast unless he is in great pain.[32] In case of doubt, one should discuss it with one’s doctor and rabbi.
  • A woman who has given birth within the last thirty days is not required to fast. If she gave birth more than seven days before Tisha Be’Av and she feels up to it, she should fast for a few hours before eating. Some say that a woman who gave birth more than seven days before Tisha Be’Av should fast the entire day if she feels well enough to do so.[33]
  • Generally, a nursing mother or pregnant woman should fast. One who feels that she is unable to fast should consult her doctor and rabbi.
  • It is advisable (especially for pregnant and nursing women) to drink a lot of water in the days leading up to the fast. 
  • One who needs to swallow medication may do so.If one needs liquid with which to swallow a pill they should use a bitter liquid (such as vinegar mixed with water), if possible.[34]
  • It is best not to rinse one’s mouth. One who is uncomfortable may use mouthwash but should be careful not to swallow any of it.
  • Children before Bar or Bat Mitzvah need not fast. Some say that children nearing the age of Bar or Bat Mitzvah should be trained to fast for several hours.[35] There is no basis for the popular belief that children should fast the last three fasts before their bar or bat mitzvah.
  • If one mistakenly ate or drank, he should resume fasting as soon as he realizes it. He may say Aneinu and Nachem in Mincha[36]
  • A sick person who is not fasting on Tisha Be’Av may say Nachem in Mincha but should not say Aneinu.[37]
  • One who is too sick to fast should not eat delicacies or act in a light-headed manner. In addition, it is important (for all people) not to get angry on this or any other fast day.[38]

Wearing Leather Shoes[39]

 One may not wear leather shoes.

  • One should not wear shoes that have leather uppers or leather soles. 
  • Leather belts and other leather garments are allowed.
  • Shoes made of non-leather (canvas etc.) are allowed. Some are strict and refrain from wearing comfortable shoes even if they are not leather.[40]
  • Children who are old enough to be educated should likewise be educated to refrain from wearing leather shoes.

Washing[41]

  • One may not wash any parts of the body.
  • An area which becomes dirty may be washed.
  • One should wash Negel Vasser (the morning hand washing) both upon awakening and when the making the bracha, but only until the knuckles.
  • Children (or others who are exempt from fasting) who are washing for bread may wash as usual.[42] The same applies to Mayim Acharonim.
  • In general, if one needs to break their fast it is best not to wash and have bread as there is an argument as to whether one should say Nachem in Birkat HaMazon (Grace after Meals).[43]
  • Kohanim who are washing to say the blessing of the Kohanim (in Israel or in the Sefardic tradition of doing a daily Priestly blessing even in the Diaspora) as well as to the Leviyim who are washing the hands of the Kohanim may wash as usual until their wrists.[44]
  • After washing Negel Vasser in the morning, one may dry one’s hands and use his somewhat moist fingers to wipe his eyes.
  • If one’s eyes are encrusted, he may wash them as necessary.
  • One who uses the bathroom should wash his fingers until the knuckles.[45] One who normally washes six times alternately after using the bathroom may do so on Tisha Be’Av as well but should wash only until the knuckles.[46]
  • One who touched a part of his body that is normally covered may wash that hand up to the knuckles.[47] One should refrain from touching these areas in order to minimize washing on Tisha Be’Av.[48]
  • One should wash his hands up until his knuckles before praying.[49]
  • A kallah, within 30 days after her wedding, may wash her face.[50]
  • A woman may wash herself as necessary in order to do a hefsek tahara.[51]
  • One who is preparing food (for children or for after the fast) may wash that food even though their fingers will get washed as well.[52]
  • In addition, one may wash one’s hands to clean them before preparing food as needed.
  • One who needs to wash dishes for use on Tisha Be’Av may do so, preferably while wearing gloves.[53]
  • Neither a man nor a woman may go to the mikvah on Tisha Be’Av.

Marital Relations

  • Marital relations are forbidden. 
  • On the night of Tisha Be’Av (Wednesday night), a couple should observe the laws relating to a time of Niddah (harchakot).[54]
  • A woman whose mikvah night is Wednesday night should postpone the Mikvah until Thursday night. She should prepare for mikvah on Wednesday in the late afternoon and then again (briefly) after Tisha Be’Av. The same applies to a woman whose Mikvah night is on Thursday night. If one did not prepare on Wednesday afternoon, she should do all her preparations after Tisha Be’Av.[55] Some say she should always prepare after Tisha Be’Av is over. [56] Whenever preparing at night only, the preparations should take at least one hour. 

Creams and Oils

  • One may not use any cream, oil, or lotion on one’s skin.
  • A Kallah may use creams on her face for thirty days after her wedding.[57]
  • One may use deodorant as necessary.[58]

Jewelry

It is customary for women not to wear jewelry on Tisha Be’Av with the exception of rings that one wears all the time. Other jewelry that one wears all of the time may be worn by the letter of the law.[59]

Smelling Spices

Some say that one should not smell fragrant spices on Tisha Be’Av.[60] In addition, it is not appropriate to smoke on Tisha Be’Av (nor is it ever recommended) especially before chatzot(midday).[61]

Greetings 

  • One may not greet others on Tisha Be’Av (e.g., by saying “hello” or “good morning”).
  • If one is greeted by someone else, one should respond softly and inform that person (if appropriate) that on Tisha Be’Av greeting is forbidden.[62]
  • It is permissible to nod one’s head in greeting.[63]
  • One should not inquire as to how someone else is doing as a matter of course. If they are sick, however, one may ask how they are doing.[64]
  • One who is taking leave of a friend on Tisha Be’Av may say, “May we meet at the rebuilding of the Beit HaMikdash.”[65]
  • One should not give gifts on Tisha Be’Av unless the recipient is poor and in need of the object.[66]
  • One may give money or food to the poor on Tisha Be’Av. In fact, it is customary to give extra tzedakh to the poor on this day[67]

Work[68]

  • One should not do work on Tisha Be’Av before midday. This is referring to any work that takes time and would distract one from mourning.
  • It is best not to work even after midday as the Talmud says[69] that “Whoever works on Tisha Be’Av will not see a blessing from that work.”
  • Simple work (e.g., turning the light on) may be done even in the morning.
  • If not working will cause one to have a great financial loss, one may work even in the morning.[70]
  • It is customary not to begin preparing the meal with which to break the fast until after midday. If it will be a seudat mitzvah (a mitzvah meal, e.g., the feast after a brit milah) and there will not enough time to prepare it if one waits until after midday, one may begin before midday.[71]

Prayers on Tisha Be’Av

The Night of Tisha Be’Av, Wednesday night, July 26 

  • It is customary to remove the parochet (curtain) from the aron kodesh (holy ark) or at least to leave it drawn to the side. 
  • Some have the custom of also removing the cloth that covers the Bimah (table used for the Torah reading) and the cloth covering the chazzan’s shtender (lectern).
  • The lights should be dimmed for Maariv and the reading of Eicha.
  • One should sit on the floor (or a low bench) for the Maariv prayer and the reading of Eicha.
  • The reader who leads the congregation is saying Eicha should pause slightly between each verse and slightly longer between each chapter. He should read the final verse in every chapter in a louder voice than the rest of the chapter. The last verse should be said aloud by the congregation and then repeated by the reader.[72]
  • After the reading of Eicha, several Kinot (lamentations) as well as Ve’atah Kadoshand Aleinu are recited.
  • It is customary in many communities to learn the story of the destruction after the Maariv (the evening service).[73]
  • One who is praying alone should also recite the Eicha and Kinot as well as the Kinot on the day of Tisha Be’Av.

Morning Prayers

  • In the morning, we do not say the blessing of She’asah li Kol Tzarki since this blessing is to thank G-d for shoes and we may not wear (regular) shoes on TishaBe’Av. The bracha is also not recited at night at the end of Tisha Be’Av.[74] Others say that this bracha should be recited on Tisha Be’Av,[75] while some say it should be recited on the night after Tisha Be’Av when one puts on his regular shoes.[76] The Chabad custom follows the first opinion.
  • We do not wear a Talit Gadol or Teffilin for Shacharit, only for Mincha.
  • One should not say a blessing on his Talit Katan in the morning.
  • One should not hold the tzitzit of his tallit katan for Baruch She’amar or for the reading of the Shema.[77]
  • It is customary not to recite the Song of the Day or Ein K'elokainu until the afternoon.
  • We do not recite Tachanun (confessionary prayers). After the amidah, the Chazzanrecites Half Kaddish.
  • Only those fasting may receive an aliyah or be the ba’al koreh.
  • After Shachrit it is customary to read Kinot until Chatzot (midday). The final chapter 'Eili Tzion' should be recited verse by verse responsively.
  • The Sefer Torah should be returned to the Aron Kodesh before the recitation of Kinot.
  • One may not walk outside or converse during the recital of the Kinot so as not to remove one’s mind from mourning.[78]
  • It is proper for each individual to recite Eicha privately after completing Kinot.[79]
  • After Kinot we recite Ashrei, Uva L'tzion (omitting the verse V'ani Zos Briti), Kaddish(without the verse of Titkabel), Aleinu, and Mourner’s Kaddish.[80]
  • A mourner, during the shiva, may come to shul during the morning of Tisha Be’Av.
  • If there is a brit on Tisha Be’Av, it should take place after the completion of Kinot. The parents, Mohel, and Sandak may wear Shabbat clothes during the Brit. They may not, however, wear leather shoes.[81]
  • It is mentioned in the Shulchan Aruch that it is customary to visit the Bais HaChaim (the cemetery) after morning prayers of Tisha Be’Av. The Chabad Rebbes didn’t follow this custom. The reason for this may be because on Tisha Be’Av one may not go to the Mikvah, and it is customary in Chabad for men to immerse themselves in the Mikvah before going to the cemetery. [82]

Afternoon Prayers

  • At Mincha time, one may say the Tehillim of the day as well as the Chumash and Tanya.[83]
  • It is important to give additional Tzedakah on this day.
  • The order of Mincha is:
  • The Parochet (curtain) should be replaced on the Aron Kodesh (holy ark).
  • One should don Tallit and Tefillin with a Bracha.
  • Chabad custom is to begin by reciting the three chapters of Shema,[84] Shir Shel Yom(Song of the Day), Mourner’s Kaddish, Ein K’elokainu, Kaddish D'rabanan, Tehillim, Mourner’s Kaddish, followed by Korbanot, Ashrei, and Half-Kaddish.
  • The Torah is brought out and three Aliyot are read. The third Aliyah is also Maftir. All the three men called up to the Torah should be fasting as should be the chazzan.
  • Kaddish should not be recited before the Haftorah.
  • The Haftorah is the same as the one said on other fast days (Dirshu). Sefardim say the Haftorah of Shuva Yisrael (same as Shabbat Shuva).[85] After the Haftorah, one says the blessings on the Haftorah until “Magen David.”
  • The prayers of Nachaim and Aneinu are inserted in the silent Amidah, in the blessings of Boneh Yerushalayim and Shome’ah Tefilah respectively. 
  • If one forgot to say Nacheim, some say it should be inserted in Shome’ah Tefilah, after “aneinu” and before “ki atah.”[86] Others say it should be inserted in Retzeh, before V’techezenah. This is the main halacha.[87] In any case, one should finish those berachot as usual. One who did not remember to say it during those blessings can add it to Elokai Netzor (the paragraph at the end of the Amidah).[88]
  • If one did not recite Nacheim at all, he need not repeat the Amidah.

o  The Chazzan should recite Aneinu, Nachaim, and Birkat Kohanim in the repetition of the Amidah. In Sefardic communities (and in Israel), the Kohanim recite the Priestly blessing.

o  Minchah is concluded with Aleinu and Mourner’s Kaddish. (We do not recite Avinu Malkeinu.)

o  Those who put on “Rabeinu Tam’s Tefillin” should do so after Mincha.

o  After nightfall, one should study the Rambam of the day, the Daf yomi, or any other daily shiur.

Motzoei Tisha Be’Av 

Thursday night, July 27

Ma’ariv and Break-fast                                                         

  • At nightfall, one should pray Maariv as usual. 
  • One should wash Negel Vasser properly (six times alternately) after Maariv.
  • The widespread custom is to do Kiddush Levana on the night after Tisha Be’Av. According to Rabbi Chaim Vital, this alludes to the birth of Moshiach ben David which, according to tradition, takes place on Tisha Be’Av.[89] Some say to postpone Kiddush Levana until Motzoei Shabbat Nachamu.[90]
  • It is best to put on leather shoes and eat before Kiddush Levana in order to recite it with full simcha (joy). If by doing so, one will miss saying this prayer with a minyan, one may say it while still fasting.[91]
  • One may not eat meat or drink wine until after midday on Friday. Other restrictions of the Three Weeks and Nine Days remain in place until that time as well. Exception is made in honor of Shabbat, and as such one may take a haircut and wash one’s clothes on Friday morning (or even on Thursday night, if necessary,[92]) as needed for Shabbat.[93] For Sefardim none of the restrictions of these days remain, except for not eating meat or drinking wine which is forbidden on Thursday night.[94]

Our sages teach that whoever mourns for Yerushalayim will merit to see it rebuilt.[95]May we merit it speedily in our days!


[1] Ta’anit 26b

[2] Rashi D.H SheKalu on Tanit 30bTalmud Yerushalmy Ta’anit 4:7, see Seforno on Numbers 14:34

[3] See here for opinions as to which year it was.

[4] According to the Talmud (Ta’anit 29a), he was the governor after the destruction of the Second Beit HaMikdash while Raban Gamliel was alive. As such, he was a different person than the Turnus Rufus who was the governor at the time of the rebellion of Beitar (notes on the Metivta Shas, Ta’anit, ibid).

[5] Tur (O.C. 551) writes that he plowed the area of the Sanctuary. According to Rashi (Ta’anit 29a D.H. Nechrasha), he had the entire city plowed.

[6] Dorot Rishonim (3:19-20) says that he did this to dash any hopes that the Jewish people may have had to rebuild the Beit HaMikadash or Jerusalem (see above).

[7] Rama 553:2, see Mechaber O.C. 554:1 and Responsa Chatam Sofer O.C. 156

[8] The Mishnah Berurah, 553:8 cites many acharonim who permit learning on Erev Tisha Be’Av and who say that one should not protest if he sees someone following this view.

[9] Mechaber ibid,

[10] O.C. 552:12 See Aruch HaShulchan (552:14) that this is a sign that this day will be transformed into a Yom Tov.

[11] See O.C. Siman 552 and commentaries.

[12] See Magen Avraham 552:11 and Nitei Gavriel 51:1 that some say this is a sign of our faith that these days will become positive ones.

[13] Aruch HaShulchan 552:5

[14] Rama 552:6 based on the verse (Lamentations 3:16) “He has broken my teeth on gravel, He forced me with ashes.” See Jerusalem Talmud, Ta’anit 4:6 that this was the practice of Rav.

[15] Mechaber, 552:5 and Yalkut Yosef, Dinei Seudat Hamafseket, 3. This is permitted if they usually cook these ingredients together as it is then considered to be one tavshil (cooked dish) as opposed to two.

[16] See Kaf HaChaim 552:15

[17] O.C. 552:7. See Kaf Hachaim 7 that one should not sit directly on the floor (for Kabbalistic reasons). As such, one should sit on a low stool or a pillow.

[18] O.C. 552:8 and commentaries

[19] Rama, ibid, 7 and Mishnah Berurah 18

[20] 553:1 and Mishnah Berurah 2

[21] Mishnah Berurah, 554:5 and Aruch HaShulchan 554:5

[22] See Aruch HaShulchan Y.D. 384:9

[23] See Kara Olai Mo’ed (by Rabbi Yosef Dov Septimus, Tifrach 2021), 8, note 4 and Nitei Gavriel 75:11. See Likutei Sichot vol. 9 pg. 250.

[24] Sha’arei Halacha Uminhag, 2, pgs. 183 - 184

[25] Ibid, pg. 183. See also Sefer HaSichot, 5751, vol. 2, page 691, end of note 87 where it seems that this leniency also applies to learning about the Beit HaMikdash. It would seem that this can only be said if this topic is being learned in that community in a regular manner during the Three Weeks or the Nine Days.

[26] Piskei Teshuvos 554 note 16

[27] O.C. 559:3 and Nitei Gavriel chapter 68

[28] Halichot Shlomo, Bein HaMeitzarim 15:6

[29] O.C. 555:2

[30] See Piskei Teshuvot 555:5

[31] Mechaber, 554:6, see sources quoted in Nitei Gavriel, vol. 65, note 22.

[32] Rama, ibid

[33] See sources quoted in Nitei Gavriel, 65:6 and Rama ibid.

[34] Kaf HaChaim 554:34

[35] See sources quoted in Kara Alai Mo’ed, 9:1.

[36] O.C. 568:1 and Mishnah Beruah 3. See Rama O.C. 557:1

[37] See Rama ibid and Biur Halacha Bein Yachid on O.C. 565:1.

[38] O.C. 568:12 and Mishnah Berurah 50

[39] O.C. 554:16

[40] See Kaf HaChaim 554:70.

[41] O.C. –554:7-11 and commentaries 

[42] Nitei Gavriel 66:8

[43] Ibid 4, see Rama 557 and Mishnah Berurah 5

[44] See Shulchan Aruch HaRav 613:6 with footnotes. Even if the Kohanim washed three times alternately until their wrists, they should still wash “Negel Vasser” after Tisha Be’Av (see below) [see Likutei Sichot vol. 9 pg. 386 regarding Yom Kippur].

[45] If one went to the bathroom but did not touch a part of his body that is normally covered and he is not about to pray, there is a question if he may wash his hands. In this case, it is preferred to actually touch such an area in order to be able to wash one’s hands (Shulchan Aruch HaRav, 613:4).

[46] Piskei Teshuvot 554:12 and Minchat Yitzchak, 10:45

[47] See Mishnah Berurah, 613:6.

[48] Nitei Gavriel 71:13

[49] Aruch Hashulchan 554:10

[50] Mishna Berurah, 554:29

[51] O.C. 551, Sha’ar HaTziyun, 35

[52] Magen Avraham, 554:11 and Aruch HaShulchan, ibid

[53] Kara Alai Mo’ed 8, footnote 15*

[54] Mishnah Berurah 554:37

[55] Mishnah Berurah 554:18

[56] Rama, 551:16 with Bui’ur halacha D.H. Im Ee Efshar and Shiurei Shevet HaLevi 189:4 ot 2 

[57] Mishnah Beurah 554:29

[58] Nitei Gavriel 73:6 

[59] Ibid, 8

[60] See O.C. 556, Sha’ar HaTziyun, 1

[61] Nitei Gavriel 79:12

[62] O.C. 554:20 and Mishnah Berurah 42

[63] Ritva, Mo’ed Kattan, 27b D”H Tanu Rabanan Avel. See Responsa Salmat Chayim by Rabbi Yosef Chaim Sonnenfeld, Y.D. 201

[64] Rav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach in Halichot Shlomo, Bein HaMeitzarim, 15, Orchot Halacha 30

[65] Ibid

[66] Mishnah Berurah, 554:41Kaf HaChaim, 91

[67] Kaf HaChaim,ibid

[68] O.C. 554:22 – 24 with Mishnah Berurah

[69] Ta’anit 30b, see O.C. 554:24 and Mishnah Berurah 49

[70] O.C. 552:23 and Mishnah Berurah 48

[71] O.C. 559:10 and Mishnah Berurah, 40

[72]See O.C. 559:1-2 with Mishnah Berurah and Kaf HaChaim

[73] See Kaf HaChaim, 552:13

[74] See ibid, 554:78 that this is the opinion of the Arizal.

[75] Mishnah Berurah 554:31

[76] The Vilna Gaon in Maaseh Rav, Siman 9

[77] Piskei Teshuvot 555:2

[78] Rama, 559:5

[79] Mishnah Berurah, 559:2

[80] O.C. 559:4

[81] O.C. 559:8. See Kara Olai Mo’ed 9:12 that there are differing opinions as to whether they should wear Taleisim if it is still before Chatzot.

[82] See Rama O.C. 559:10, Kaf Hachaim 83 and Igrot Kodesh, 11 pg. 307.

[83] Sha’arei Halacha Uminhag, 2, pg. 183

[84] See Kaf Hachaim, 555:7 but see Mishnah Berurah, 5.

[85] Kaf HaChaim 559:42

[86] Taz, 557:1

[87] Mishnah Berurah, 557:2

[88] Kaf HaChaim, 557:2

[89] Kaf HaChaim 426:29

[90] See Rama O.C. 426:2

[91] Mishnah Berurah 426:11 and Sha’ar HaTziyun 9

[92] See sources quoted in the Dirshu Mishnah Berurah, note 7 on Siman 558

[93] Mishnah Berurah, 558:3

[94] Yalkut Yosef, Dinei Bein HaMeitzarim, page 586

[95] Ta’anit 30b


Wishing you a Chodesh Tov UMevorach!

Wed, April 24 2024 16 Nisan 5784